Journal Article Title: Mathematical 3-D Model for Whiplash Simulation
Article Author(s): PETERSON, DONN N., P.E.
Volume: 13
Volume #: 2
Month: December
Year: 1996

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Several years ago, the author developed a mathematical 2-D model to quantitatively describe the forces, moments, and motions of vehicles and dummy occupants during collisions. The equations of motion and applicable logic statements were programmed in Basic to use on PC's (IBM compatible personal computers). Simulations of many crashes have been successfully run on PC's using the 2-D model. Clients are usually interested in the responses of the dummy head and torso and the calculated magnitudes of forces and moments in the neck joint. These data are particularly useful in litigation cases where medical findings are subjective (e.g. soft tissue injuries) and opinions of the treating and adverse health care professionals differ significantly. When additional relevant information has been received, the model has been refined. The model has been modified to accommodate crashes in which the target and bullet vehicles are off-center and reasonably close in axial alignment. A description of the 2-D model was presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences at San Antonio, Texas. In a particular recent case, the nature of the collision and the posture of the occupant driver are not within the inherent constraints of the 2-D model. In order to adequately study this case, a mathematical 3-D model would be needed.