Forensic Engineering Analysis of Golf Course, Cart, Club and Ball Accidents

Article Author(s): Laura Liptai, Ph.D. (NAFE 338C) and Michael Johnstone A.I.A. (NAFE 361C)

Volume: 27
Volume #: 1
Month: June
Year: 2010

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Abstract:

With over 27.8 million golfers and more than 16,000 golf facilities in the United States, golf is a non-contact sport with statistically low risk for injury. However, research has documented golf related injuries can be disproportionally serious or even fatal. Federal regulations and countermeasures to improve golf safety are outlined. A spectrum of forensic engineering analysis of golf-related incidents illustrates the broad range of resulting trauma. Categories of golf incidents include: cart collisions with other vehicles resulting from mixed use on automotive roadways, cart solo incidents including ejection with and without rollover, errant golf ball impacts, inadvertent golf club impacts, trip and fall incidents as well as golf cart fires.

The objective is a principal called “vision zero” golf that reaches toward minimizing trauma while acknowledging that safety can only be achieved by a partnership between the designers of the system (engineers and manufacturers) and the safe users of the system.

Keywords
Golf Cart, Recreational Personal Low Speed Vehicle, Head Impact, Golf Injury, Golf Trauma, Vision Zero